*If individuals achieve and maintain weight loss, we could prevent substantial cancer burden. This is most evident for postmenopausal breast cancer.(British Journal of Cancer. 2008 October 7; 99(7): 995–999).
In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) issued summary findings on the association of obesity with cancer. Convincing evidence was found for body fatness and colorectal, pancreatic, gall bladder, postmenopausal breast, kidney, endometrial, lung and liver cancers.
Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The risk of developing colon cancer is thought to be reduced through a number of lifestyle factors, with maintaining a healthy weight and physical activity being among the most important.The IARC report found consistent positive associations between body fatness, as indicated by body mass index (BMI), and risk of colorectal cancer. Risk of colon cancer was increased by 50–100% when comparing the highest and lowest categories of BMI (body mass index, a height to weight ratio).
Breast cancer is a major cause of morbidity and the leading cause of cancer mortality among women globally accounting for over 500,000 deaths per year. The IARC report concluded that obesity and weight gain are directly and positively related to postmenopausal breast cancer. An analysis conducted as part of the WCRF/AICR report found a 5% increase in risk of postmenopausal breast cancer with each 3 lbs. of weight gain.
Prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death among men worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer death among US men and the most common type of cancer found in men in the United States and the United Kingdom.Several studies provide significant support for the hypothesis that obesity increases the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.
By 2007 the WCRF/AICR had found convincing evidence that body fatness increased risk of pancreatic cancer. The WCRF/AICR reported a 14% increased the risk of pancreatic cancer for every 3 lb. increase in BMI.
In 2002, IARC found sufficient evidence that obesity increased the risk of endometrial cancer. The WCRF/AICR meta-analysis found a 52% increase in risk for every 3 lb.increase in BMI and a 31% increase in risk for every 3 lbs. as a young adult.
Kidney and renal cell cancer
Nearly all studies included in the WCRF/AICR report found an increased risk of kidney cancer with increased BMI. A meta-analysis found a 31% increase in risk for each 3 lb.increase in BMI.
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